Table of Content
List of abbreviations
Background of the Study
Aim and Objectives of the Study
Statement of Hypotheses
Scope of the Study
Limitations of the Study
Relevance of the Study
Definition of Key Terms
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
Theories of Emotional Intelligence
Concept of Leadership Styles
Leadership and team performance
Interrelationship between Team Performance and Emotional Intelligence
Summary of Literature Review
Sources and Instrument of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSES AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Biodata of Respondents
Presentation of Data according to research questions
Test of Hypotheses
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of Findings
Areas for further studies
1.1 Background to the study
When the concept of EI was first popularized in 1995, it was touted as the missing link as to why people with average Intelligence Quotients (IQs) outperform those with the highest IQs 70% of the time. This anomaly led to a re-evaluation of what was assumed to be the sole source of success IQ. Subsequently, decades of research now point to EI as a critical factor that sets star performers apart from the rest of the pack. Among other measures, the level of EI may be measured by the Emotional Quotient (EQ) through the use of personality tests and questionnaires.
In the workplace, EI has been associated with the extent to which managers conduct themselves in ways that are supportive of the goals of the organization, according to the ratings of their supervisors. Similarly, EI is hypothesized to influence the success with which leaders interact with employees, the strategies they use to manage conflict and stress and overall job performance. The level of EQ quantifies that “extra something” in each of us that is intangible. It affects how we manage behavior, navigate social complexities, and make personal decisions that achieve positive results.
EI is made up of four core skills that pair up under two primary competencies: personal competence and social competence.
- Personal competence is focused on a person’s self-awareness and self-management skills rather than that person’s interactions with others. Personal competence describes the ability to be aware of one’s emotions, and manage behavior and tendencies.
- Social competence comprises social awareness and relationship management skills. Social competence measures the ability to understand the moods, behavior, and motives of others in order to improve the quality of relationships.
EI, intelligence and personality are essential and distinct parts of the whole of an individual. EI taps into a fundamental element of human behavior that is distinct from intellect. There is no known connection between the IQ and EI i.e. you simply cannot predict EI based on how smart an individual is. Intelligence is the ability to learn, and it’s the same at age 15 as it is at age 50. EI, on the other hand, is a flexible set of skills that can be acquired and improved with practice. Although some people have naturally higher levels of EQ than others, levels of EQ can be easily improved. Personality is the final piece of the puzzle. It’s the stable “style” that defines a person. Personality is the result of hard-wired preferences, such as the inclination toward introversion or extroversion.
- Conceptual Framework
- Theories of Emotional Intelligence?
EI is defined as ‘the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Linking emotions and intelligence was relatively novel when first introduced in a theoretical model over 20 years ago. Among the many questions posed by both researchers and laypersons alike were:
- Is EI an innate, nonmalleable mental ability?
- Can it be acquired with instruction and training?
- Is it a new intelligence or just the repackaging of existing constructs?
- How can it be measured reliably and validly?
- What does the existence of an EI mean in everyday life?
- In what ways does EI affect mental health, relationships, daily decisions and workplace performance?
Historically, ‘emotion’ and ‘intelligence’ were viewed as being in opposition to one another (Lloyd, 1979). How could one be intelligent about the emotional aspects of life when emotions derail individuals from achieving their goals? (Young, 1943). The theory of EI suggested the opposite – i.e. emotions make cognitive processes adaptive and individuals can think rationally about emotions. EI is an outgrowth of two areas of psychological research that emerged over 40 years ago.
The first area – cognition and affect, involved how cognitive and emotional processes interact to enhance thinking (Bower, 1981; Isen, Shalker, Clark, & Karp, 1978; Zajonc, 1980). Emotions like anger, happiness, and fear, as well as mood states, preferences, and bodily states, influence how people think, make decisions and perform different tasks (Forgas & Moylan, 1987; Mayer & Bremer, 1985; Salovey & Birnbaum, 1989).
The second area was an evolution in models of intelligence itself. Hence, rather than viewing intelligence strictly as how well one engaged in analytic tasks associated with memory, reasoning, judgment, and abstract thought, theorists and investigators began considering intelligence as a broader array of mental abilities (Cantor & Kihlstrom, 1987; Gardner, 1983 ⁄ 1993; Sternberg, 1985).
Sternberg (1985), for example, urged educators and scientists to place an emphasis on creative abilities and practical knowledge that could be acquired through careful navigation of one’s everyday environment. Gardner’s (1983) ‘personal intelligences,’ including the capacities involved in accessing one’s own feeling life (intrapersonal intelligence) and the ability to monitor others’ emotions and mood (interpersonal intelligence), provided a compatible backdrop for considering EI as a viable construct.