The essence of this study is to carry out an empirical analysis of public policy and grassroot development in Nigeria with an empirical focus on Enugu East local government area. The theoretical frame work adopted from the study was the research design used for this study was survey research design because it studies both large and small population by selecting and studying samples chosen from the population. The sample was determined to be three hundred and ninety nine (399) using Taro Yamane statistical formula. Simple random sampling was used as the sampling technique for the reason that the method ensures equal chance of selection among the respondents. Data for the study was collected through the distribution of well structured questionnaire. The method of data analysis was the use of frequency tables and percentages to analyze the descriptive characteristics of the respondents. Findings from the study reveal that public policy has no significant impact on grassroot development in Nigeria, there are significant challenges surrounding grassroot development policy• formulation and implementation in Nigeria and grassroot leaders are not committed to the grassroot development of Enugu East local government area of Enugu State. The paper concluded it is the recommendation of this study that to make public policies effective in Nigeria and Enugu East in particular, there should be a continuous forum between the government and the people so that policies formulated are in line with the needs and priorities of the people and community in general.



Title page                                                                                                                                 i

Approval page                                                                                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                   iv

Table of contents                                                                                                                     V

List of table –                                                                                                                           vii

Abstract                                                                                                                                   Viii


1.1 Background of the Study                                                                                                   1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                                                   2

1.3 Objectives of the Study                                                                                                     3

1.4 Research Questions                                                                                                                       3

1.5 Hypotheses of the Study                                                                                                    4

1.6 Significance of the Study                                                                                                   4

1.7 Scope of the Study                                                                                                            4

1.8 Definition of Terms                                                                                                                       5


2.0 Conceptual Review                                                                                                                        6

2.l The Concept of Policy                                                                                                        6

2.2 The Concept of Public Policy                                                                                            7

2.3 Features of Public Policy                                                                                                   10

2.4 Policy Implementation                                                                                                       12

2.5 The Concept of Development                                                                                            13

2.6 The Concept of Grass-root Development                                                                          14

2.7 The Policy Process                                                                                                                         17

2.8 Perceived Reasons Why Government Policy Fails                                                                         20

2.9 Empirical Review                                                                                                              24

2.10 Theoretical Framework                                                                                                    29


3.1 Research Design                                                                                                                30

3.2 Population of the                                                                                                               30

3.3 Sample Size Determination                                                                                                            31

3.4 Sampling Technique                                                                                                          32

3.5 Instrumentation                                                                                                                  32

3 .6Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                              32

3.7 Validity of Instrument                                                                                                       33

3.8 Data Collection technique                                                                                                  33

3.9 Method of Data Analysis                                                                                                   33


4.0 Introduction                                                                                                                       35

4.1 Response Rate Analysis                                                                                                     35

4.2 Demographic Analysis                                                                                                       36



5.1 Summary of Findings                                                                                                        48

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                                                                    48

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                                                         49

References                                                                                                                               50

Appendix I                                                                                                                              55

Questionnaire                                                                                                                          55




1.1 Background of the Study

The primary desire and goal of any community at the local, state or national level is to generate and sustain development. Development entails better welfare, better attitude towards life and positive radical multidimensional changes. However, the attainment and activation of development is intentional. Development does not just happen; it is strategically planned, organized and executed through the instrumentality of public policy.

Publiê policies in an ordinary parlance are those definite acts or actions of government geared towards the fulfillment of the obligation of government on the citizens, which are the maintenance of law and order, the provision of social and economic facilities needed for an enhanced standard of living of the people (lyoha, 2000)

Nigeria gained independence in 1960 from the British colonial government. Ever since then, grassroot governance and development have been declared one of the major priorities by the successive governments, be it civilian or military. In this regard, several organizations, institutions and agencies have been set up to undertake and monitor the complicated process of nation-building, development and integration.

This post colonial orientation is a deviation from the erstwhilecolonial arrangement whereby development efforts in all spheres were concentrated in the urbanareas to the neglect of grassroot and rural areas. Hence, projects such as the construction of roads, bridges,schools, railway lines, air trip, ports and marketing boards, among others, were all aimed atopening the rural areas as a link for the easy exploitation of export of raw materials (Hilary, 2009)

In Nigeria, over the years the stated objectives and strategies of grassroot development have been pronounced by policy makers and those concerned with• the issue of development. But there still exist enormous gap between public policy formulation and implementation and the reality of the level of the development of the grassroot sphere.

For example, several approaches in terms of grassroot development planning and execution have been adopted. Some of these included the creation of states, local government areas, mobilization of people for local participation in planning and implementation of community development projects in order tocreate new centres of deelopment, and thus stem the drift from rural to urban areas. On the part of government therefore there is the realization that there is need to bring the neglected grassroot areas into the mainstream of national development (Michael, 2012).




2.0 Conceptual Review

2.l The Concept of Policy

Forman (2008) asserts that the concept of policy has two distinct meanings in the field of public administration. First, policy is seen as a way of doing things or decision rule. Secondly, he posits policy as substantive programmes referring specifically to the context of what is being done and not necessarily how it is being done.

Ross (2009) suggested that policy should be seen as “a long series of more or less related activities and their consequences for those concerned• rather than as a discrete decision”. Lasswell and Kaplan (2001) had given a systematic definition of the concept which appear more applicable and relevant to many area or fields of the social and behavioural sciences. In their words: “Policy is a projected programme of goal, values and practices; policy process is the formulation, promulgation and application of identifications, demand and expectations concerning the future interpersonal relations of the self”

Also contributing to the understanding of the concept of policy, Lowi (2000) emphasized the importance of the concept of coercion in thinking about policy. According to him, policy, involves deliberate coercion or in other words statements intended to delineate the purpose, means, subject and objects of the exercise of coercion within the context of power relationships in organizational structure. Gergan (2008) described policy as a “course-setting involving decisions of widest ramifications and longest time perspective in the sight of an organization”.

Friedrich (2003) perceives policy as an attempt to overcome and or utilize environment” obstacles and or opportunities in order to achieve a given goal or objective. Continuing he added that policy is directed towards the accomplishment of some purpose or goal.


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