This study is aimed at identifying the problems of development-policy making in Obudu local government area of Cross River state. The theoretical framework adopted in this study is the planning theory propounded by Fainstein (2000). This research adopted the survey method given the nature of data. The population of the study consists of the staff of Obudu local government of Cross River state which is one hundred and eight seven (187) respondents. The sample technique adopted in the study is the simple random sampling technique. Data was analyzed using tables and frequencies to analyze the demographic characteristics of the respondents and Chi-Square (X2) was used to test the hypotheses. Findings of the study reveal that there are problems affecting development policy making and implementation in Obudu local government area of Cross River state namely; there is lack of platform for periodic interaction between political actors and citizens in the local council to ascertain the needs of the citizenry, Bureaucratic ineffectiveness and lack of development planning, second; development policy making and its implementation is of paramount importance in the Obudu local government area, third, there are significant ideas from the grassroots that could help the local government bureaucracy in Obudu to formulate policies for development. It is therefore the recommendation of this study that Obudu local government officials should engage rural development experts to assist them with problems of development-policy making. This will go a long way in facilitating growth and development in the area.

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Title page                                                                                                    i

Approval page                                                                                           ii

Certification page                                                                                       iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                      v

Table of content                                                                                          vi

List of Tables                                                                                              vii

Abstract                                                                                                      viii


1.1 Background to the study                                                                      1

1.2 Statement of the problem                                                                     2

1.3 Objectives of the study                                                                                   3

1.4 Scope of the study                                                                                4

1.5 Significance of the study                                                                       4

1.6 Research hypotheses                                                                                     5

1.7 Research questions                                                                              6

1.8 Methodology                                                                                       6

1.9 Limitations of the study                                                                               6





2.1.1 Policy: A conceptual discourse                                                          8

2.1.2 Policy implementation                                                                       11

2.1.3 The policy process                                                                                      13

2.2.2 Reasons why government policy fails                                                         15

2.2 Empirical literature                                                                                20

2.3 Theoretical Framework                                                                         24

2.3.1 The planning theory                                                                                    24


3.0 Introduction                                                                                         25

3.1 Research design                                                                                    25

3.2 Population of the Study                                                                       25

3.3 Sample size determination                                                                    26

3.4 Sampling technique                                                                              26

3.5 Description of research instruments                                                     26

3.6 Validity of the research instruments                                                     27

3.7 Reliability of the study                                                                         27

3.8 Method of data analysis                                                                       28


4.1 Questionnaire Response-Rate                                                                30

4.2 Demographic Information                                                                          31

4.3 Test of Hypothesis                                                                                      44



5.1 Summary of findings                                                                                     48

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                           49

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                      49

Bibliography                                                                                             50

Appendix                                                                                                  53




1.1 Background to the Study

Every local government desires growth and development. The elected officials and career administrators of any given local government in Nigeria crave to be credited with carrying out projects that is geared towards the development of the local government area within their jurisdiction. This has led them into engaging in projects, investments and policies to achieve optimum growth and development. However, no community or nation can achieve development without generating development oriented policies and backing them up with effective policy implementation or action.

Policy implementation as perceived by Adamolekun (1983) refers to the activities that are carried out in the light of executing policies. It is the act of converting inputs into outputs. Edwards (1980) further asserts that policy implementation is a stage of policy making between the establishment of a policy and the consequences of the policy for the people whom it affects. It also involves a wide variety of actions such as issuing and enforcing directives, disbursing funds, making loans, assigning and hiring personnel, to mention a few.

However, it has been observed that development policy implementation at the local/grassroot level is one of the major problems confronting local governments in Nigeria. The focus of this study will be on Obudu local government area of Cross River state, Nigeria.

Without proper and effective development policy making and implementation in any local government area, the attainment of development in such a local government jurisdiction remains a mirage. However, many local government administrators may have outstanding development policies but the problem is always one of effective implementation. Development policy implementation problem occurs when the desired and projected outcome is not achieved. Wherever and whenever the basic critical factors that are very crucial to implementing public policy are missing, there is bound to be implementation problem.

In the light of the foregoing, this study is aimed at identifying the problems of development-policy making in Obudu local government area of Cross River state.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The importance of development policy making and implementation to achieve development in the local level cannot be overemphasized. However, it is empirically proven that most local governments in Nigeria face problems in the area of development policy making.

Most of the major problems faced by them include; lack of visionary political leadership at the local level, ineffective local councils which is not interested in community needs assessment, lack of development culture, lack of executive capacity to undertake policy research in the local government’s Department of Planning, Research and Statistics, community apathy and citizens indifference to interest articulation and aggregation at the local level capable of raising issues into the institutional agenda of the local government (Onyinye, 2015). This state of affairs calls for an empirical study into the problems of development policy-making and implementation in Obudu local government area of Cross River State.




2.1.1 Policy: A Conceptual Discourse

Public policies are aimed at the whole population or at specific, targeted groups, and can be created by all levels of government. Policies can also be created by institutions such as school boards, hospitals, workplaces or community organizations. Public policies are made through a process involving citizens, government officials and elected officials who, ideally, work together to set an agenda for the common good.

The concept of public policy discourse today is saturated with the advocacy or criticism of various policies. It is common to hear of foreign policy, defense policy, economic policy, educational policy and policies in almost every area of government and private activity. We also hear of policy statements, enactment of policies, and declaration of policy intentions and the commitments of millions of naira to the implementation of certain policies.

Our lives are in fact affected and influenced by policies made by the governments, communities, social organizations, churches, labour groups, educational, business and service organizations. The results of policies are also around us, such as provision of social services, the cost of fuel, the availability of agricultural loans, employment opportunities and the security of our jobs.

Policy may be developed and applied at many levels and may range from formal legislation and regulations to the informal rules by which organizations function. For example, according to Boyd (2000), government policy related to children, youth and health is developed at international, national, provincial, regional and community levels by individuals, elected officials, and public servants across a number of sectors, including health, education, social services, recreation, finance, justice, labour, transportation and environment.

According to Roberts and Edwards (2001), the concept of public policy formulation and implementation calls for a critical and in depth analysis of what public policy is all about. This is because the art of public policy analysis inherently involves policy formulation and implementation.

Public policy is a subset or particular realm in politics, while its analysis is a subdivision of politics, a field affiliated to political science. Snyder (1996) asserts that the formulation and execution of public policy is one of the major areas of future growth in political science.

By policy, we mean a “set of decisions taken by a political actor or group concerning the selection of goals and the method of attaining them, relating to a specified situation.

Public policy formulation is referred to as that part of the process by which proposed actions are articulated, debated, and drafted into the language for law or policy (The Policy Circle, 2013).

Public policy implementation can be seen as the act of carrying out of basic policy decisions, usually incorporated in a statute, but which can also take the form of important executive orders or court decisions (Mazmanian and Sabatier, 1983).

Furthermore, public policy as Mabogunje (1981) says are those definite acts or actions of government geared towards the fulfillment of the obligation of government on the citizens, which are the maintenance of law and order, the provision of social and economic facilities needed for an enhanced standard of living of the people etc. Public policy is usually organized around activities and the strategies to be adopted for its implementation.


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