1.1 Background to the Study
Teenagers-Street hawking is a common phenomenon in Nigeria today. This is more prevalent in the urban areas. Hawking is a form of trade in which the seller (hawker) carry wares (commodities or goods) from one place to another in search of prospective buyers. Teenagers-Street hawking refers to the selling of goods carry out by a person below the age of eighteen (child-street hawker). Among child-street hawkers are schools going children (in-school child-hawkers) who out of necessity combine schooling with economic activities despite its consequences.
The phenomenon of teenagers street hawking attracted concern from government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), teachers and school administrators. Studies show that children combine schooling and hawking to contribute to family survival, purchase learning materials and pay school fees (Johnson, & Ihesie, 2015). Literature suggest that parent allow their children in to hawking due to the prevailing harsh economic situation in Nigeria (Akpan, & Oluwabamide, 2010; Shailong, Onuk, & Beshi, 2011; Ayodele, & Olubayo-Fatiregun, 2014; and Clark &Yesufu, 2014; idris, Yahaya, Sambo, Muazu, & Isa, 2014). Empirical study shows a significant relationship between parents‟ occupational level and street hawking among children (Dada, 2013). Given this situation, it is unlikely that child-street hawking could be put to end any sooner.
In recent times, in-school child-street hawking has been an area of wide research (Iorvaa, 2007; Ashimolowo, Aromolaran & Inegbedion, 2010; Faruta, &Yambuk, 2013; Bosah, Offem, & Obumneke-Okeke, 2015 and Johnson, & Ihesie, 2015) due to the concern about their academic performance. Academic performance is a key aspect of educational system. It is a yardstick through which students‟ progress, teacher`s effectiveness and over all educational standard is determine. It could be defined as the ability of the students in school work which meet or exceeds the expected grades. Generally, child-street hawking has been assumed to be one of the factors influencing academic performance of students in school. Researchers such as: Akpan, and Oluwabamide, (2010); Ashimolowo, et al (2010); Ubajaka, Duru, Nnebue, Okwaraoha, andIfeadike, (2010);Ekpenyong, andSibiri, (2011); and Johnson, and Ihesie, (2015) call for legislation against child-street hawking in Nigeria. This suggests that when child-street hawkers are barred from hawking it enable them the time to concentrate on school work. Thought it is desirable to discourage any activity that will interfere with schooling of the children, however, it is not feasible when such activity is the means of livelihood in the absent of other alternatives (Omokhodion, Omokhodion & Odusote, 2006; Anumaka, 2010). Insisting on exclusive schooling for children from low income or unemployed parents will likely: hinders enrolment; leads to withdrawal and drop out of school due cost of schooling and need for survival. Given the above situation it is better to allow school going children to engage in income generating activity while they continue schooling than not to be in school at all (Okpukpara, Chine, Uguru, & Nnaemeka, 2006). Moreover, there are in-school child-street hawkers that perform better in academic work. Recent study reveals that while 35.7 % of the students had worse grade, 31.2 had better grades and 33.1 had no change in their grades since they began hawking in the street (Johnson, & Ihesie, 2015).This implies that despite the challenges that associated with combining school and work, there are students who perform better. This situation is not unrelated to factors that minimized the effects of combining schooling and hawking.
Effect of hawking on in-school children can be reduced when hawking time is minimized (Omokhodion et al., 2006). It is not unlikely that academic performance of child-street hawkers would be better when parent regulate hawking time and monitor school work. Hawking time is the period in which students carry out hawking. This could vary based on schedules of school work and/or convenience. Studies suggest the in-school students` hawking time could be: before school hours; after school hours; before and after school; and weekend/holydays (Education Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNWACA), 2010; Ubah, & Bulus, 2014). Hawking time could determine students: attendance in school; participation in extracurricular activities; amount of time for study at home and rest. These are factors that are likely to influence academic performance of students. Study habit is also an important factor influencing academic performance of students. Literatures suggest study habit and students‟ academic performance has been area of concern in education. Study habit has been defined as “external activities which serve to activate and facilitate the internal process of learning (Tunde, Oke, &Alam, 2010). It could be said to be the method students adopt to learn. A study habit is associated with time management, homework and assignment, reading and note-taking, concentration; preparation for examination and teacher consultation. Empirical studies reveal that there is a relationship between a students` academic performance and their study habits (Ola, & Morakinyo, 2009; Bashir, & Mattoo, 2012; Cerna, & Pavliushchenko, 2015). Studies on students effect of study habits on academic performance that are available are in relation to chemistry (Tunde, et al., 2010; Ogunkola, & Garner-O‟Neale, 2015), information and communication technology (ICT) (Mbah, 2010), English Mathematics and Sciences (Oluwatimilehin, & Owoyele, 2012) parents occupation (Aditya, & Ghosh, 2014) and type of school and type of family (Chand, 2013). It appears that Study on study habits and academic performance in Social Studies is non-existent. There is therefore, the need to carry out this study to fill in the gap in literature. …Get complete material
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In-school teenager’s street hawking attracted concern from government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), teachers and school administrators and researchers call for legislation against teenager-street hawking in Nigeria. It is supposed that the ban would enable school going children concentrate on school work for improve educational attainment. However, the prevalent of teenagers-street hawking appears to on the increase as each day pass by. Thought it is desirable to discourage any activity that will interfere with schooling of the children, however, it seems not feasible when such activity is the means of livelihood in the absent of other alternatives. The cost of schooling and need for the children to contribute to family survival is hindering school enrolment…. Get complete materials..
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to investigate effect of street hawkers on education attainment of teenagers in Lafia Metropolis, Nasarawa State. The specific objectives are to:
- To determine the demographic characteristics of teenagers who are into street hawking.
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- To investigate the period spent on hawking activities per day
- To make appropriate recommendation.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guides the present study:
- What is the study habits of teenagers engage in street hawking activities in Lafia metropolis based on different age groups?
- What is the educational attainment of teenagers engage in street hawking based on gender?
- … get the complete material
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study sought to find out the influence of hawking time and study habit on education attainment of teenagers. The findings of this study therefore, are expected to contribute to the understanding of situation of in-school teenagers-street hawkers and ways of handling it to ensure improvement in their educational attainment while combining schooling and hawking.
- … get the complete material … expected to be useful as adviser to the parents. For example parents can be advised to monitor the academic progress of their children and provide them supportive environment such as; learning material, enough time to rest, and assistance in home work.
- To the researcher, the findings of this study are expected to provide information for further study.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study was delimited to effect of street hawker on educational attainment of teenagers in Lafia Metropolis. The target population was all the teenagers who engage in street hawkers. Only students from public schools in the area are considered in this study. The study involved only day secondary schools. More so, only urban schools were considered due to due to security challenge in rural areas in Nasarawa state as a result of the conflict between herdsmen and farmers of some of the school in rural areas were closed at the time of this study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
- Hawking: is a form of trade in which the seller (hawker) carry wares (commodities or goods) from one place to another in search of prospective buyers
- Family Relationship: this can be considered to be a relationship that exist among family members, who are the first significant others or the way family members lives together.
- Deprivation: Prevention or Denial of access to privileges, opportunities or benefits.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Review of related Literature
Children are regarded as an important element of development. Therefore, their welfare in society is an index of social and economic development of that society. As such, child welfare is included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) (UNESCO, 2004).
The street teenager is defined as any child who may have parents or guardians in a locality living and working in the street. Street teenagers engaged in work or employment on a regular basis with the aim of earning a livelihood for themselves or for their families. Such activities are often carried out at the expense of schooling. Therefore, children are not adequately prepared for the future in a modernized society (UNICEF, 2004; FME, 2004).
Education is an essential pre-requisite for reducing poverty, improving agriculture and the living condition of rural people. Building a food security world is a basic necessity for children; therefore, it is important to observe that the government in the pre-independence era was not indifferent to child welfare. For instance, the Children and Young Persons law (CYPL) in several states in Nigeria contained law regulating street trading and the fact that in the 1960s, at least four ILO conventions prohibiting children’s work in various hazardous occupations and conditions were ratified (NBS, 2001).
UNICEF reported that in the year 2000 there were 233million children between the ages of 5-18 years in urban areas in developing countries doing one kind of paid work or the other (UNICEF, 2004). This development has great economic and development consequences. Many studies have condemned child participation in economic activities and worst form of it (street children) because of its resultant effect on schooling, health, physical, moral and psychological development of child (UNICEF, 2004; ILO – IPEC, 2002).
2.3 CONCEPT OF STREET HAWKING
A synthesis of literature shows that there are other names street hawking is been refer to among are; small and medium scale trade (Eghosa, 2010), street trading (Amoo, 2012), street vending (Mittulah, 2005), which however, has the same meaning and can be used interchangeably. There is no single universal definition of the concept street hawking; it has been defined differently by many researchers but portraying the same meaning. Asare (2010) sees street hawking as an act of selling retail goods directly on busy city streets, while to Amoo (2012), is displaying of wares by the road side, carrying head pan or raising a sample of wares to the commuters while the vehicle are moving. Umar (2009) define street hawking as the selling of things along the roads and from one place to the other. The above definitions give a picture of what is visible in the pattern of present day hawking. Unlike in the past when hawkers move from house to house and around the market place, now high ways are the major spot of hawking due to large number of commuters every day. Street hawking therefore, is a small scale trade in which the seller move around in search for prospective buyer from house to house, public offices, institutions and mainly motor parks and busy pedestals.