This study focused on the Constraints of Effective Development Policy-Making in Nigeria Local Governments (A Study of Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State).The pace at which development in the local government can be realized is hinged essentially on the ability of the government to formulate appropriate and effective development policies. Determining the reasons why development policies are hardly achieved in the local government formed the main objective of the study. The literature review was anchored on the Hybrid theory. In carrying out this study, the descriptive research design was adopted. The population of the study was 562 (five hundred and sixty two) as at April, 2018 out of which the sample size of 233(two hundred and thirty three) was derived using the Yamane’s formula. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in determining the number of questionnaire administered to respondents. Both the primary and secondary sources of data were used for data collection. Data were gathered for the study with a well structured 5 point Likert scale questionnaire. The tool used for data analysis was simple percentage. The basic finding is that there exists, indeed, some factors that constitute serious obstacles to effective development policy making in Nigeria local governments, one of which is the varying levels of interference from politicians and state government. The study concluded that interference from the state government influences effective development-policy making in the local government. The study recommended that the local government should be allowed to function more independently with little or no interference to ensure effective development policy-making.



 Title page                                                                                                   i

Approval page                                                                                             ii

Certification page                                                                                        iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                       v

Table of content                                                                                          vi

List of tables                                                                                               vii

Abstract                                                                                                      viii



1.1 Background of the study                                                                        1

1.2 Statement of the problems                                                                      3

1.3 Objective of the study                                                                                  3

1.4 Research questions                                                                                  4

1.5 Significance of the study                                                                        4

1.6 Scope of the study                                                                                  5

1.7 Limitation of the study                                                                           5



2.1.1 Conceptual Framework                                                                       6

2.1.2 Background of the Nigeria Local Government                                     9

2.1.3 The role of the Local Government as an agent of development             11

2.1.4 A brief history of Enugu East Local Government                                 15

2.1.5 Concept of Development                                                                        16

2.1.6 Public Policy as a tool for Development                                                18

2.1.7 Development Policy                                                                                19

2.1.8 Development Policies in Nigeria Local Government                              19

2.1.9 Empirical Review                                                                                   21

2.1.10 Theoretical Framework                                                                       24



3.1 Research design                                                                                     28

3.2 Area of Study                                                                                        29

3.3 Sources of Data                                                                                     29

3.4 Population of Study                                                                               30

3.5 Method of Data Collection                                                                     31

3.6 Sample and Sampling Technique                                                            31

3.7 Sample Size Determination                                                                    32

3.8 Instrument of Data Collection                                                                33

3.9 Validity of Research                                                                              34

3.10 Reliability of Instrument                                                                      34

3.11 Method of Data Analysis                                                                      34



4.1 Data collection and analysis                                                                   35



5.1 Summary of findings                                                                             50
5.2 Conclusion                                                                                            50

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                 51

Reference                                                                                                    52

Appendix                                                                                                    55

Questionnaire                                                                                              56




1.1 Background of the Study

The local government has most often been described by many authors and scholars as the government at the grass root because it is the closest to the people in comparison to the state and Federal government. The existence of this tier of government  in Nigeria dates back to the activities of the British colonialist and their quest to bring down government closer to the local people in other to maintain law and order as it where in those days.  As Olasupo and Fayomi (2012) pointed that “prior to independence and the prolonged civil war, Nigerian local government system was essentially de-concentrative but in 1976, it became devolved and “should do precisely what the word government implies i.e., governing at the grassroots or local level” Today, the local government have metamorphosed in to a more sophisticated administrative institution charged with the responsibility to perform not only administrative duties, but also engage in the development of the local area in which it is mapped out to serve.

The importance of local government is a function of its ability to generate sense of belongingness, safety and satisfaction among its populace.  All forms of government, regimes or political systems have so far ensured the attainment of this goal. Such strategy for ensuring national development and political efficacy is found in the concept and Practice of local government. Whatever is the mode of government; local government has been essentially regarded as the path to, and guarantor of, national integration, administration and development (Omatsola, 2011). To achieve the speedy development of the local government, a well articulated action plan in the form of developmental public policies/ programs must be enthroned. Public policy guides and determines present and future public decisions as well as private individual or private business institutional actions, decisions or behavior.

In essence, a public policy determines the activities of government and given private institutions in relation to providing services designed to solve a given problem (Ugwuanyi and Chukwuemeka, 2013). Being an administrative/ governing institution,  the local government through the policy making process, articulates the developmental needs of the people and then try to use the resources available to them to accomplish these policies.

Over time, it has become glaring to administrators and scholars that the challenge of policies in most developing nations of the world and Nigeria as well has remained the divergence between policy intent and policy outcome. This is as a result of the gap in implementation. In the words of Dialoke,Ukah  and Maduagwuna (2017) Implementation gap manifests in the widening of the distance between stated policy goals and the realization of such planned goals.




2.1.1 Conceptual Framework

The conceptualization of the term “local government” has been problematic; this is because there is no unanimous acceptable definition of local government among the scholars of local government and public administration. However, Kyenge (2013),quoted in Adalonu (2015) posits that the concept of local government has been given various definitions by various scholars but no matter how differently the concept is defined, it focuses on the transfer of political powers to local areas by involving the inhabitants in the provision of basic needs in their respective communities.

At this juncture, it is imperative to note the definitions of some of these scholars in the subject matter. Specifically, local government is a unit of government below the central, regional or state levels established by law to exercise political authority through a representative council within a defined geographical area. Olisa, et al 1990 quoted in (Chukwuemeka, Ugwuanyi, Ndubuisi-Okolo & Onuoha, 2014). Appadorai (1975) defines local government as government by popularly elected bodies’ charged with administration and executive duties in matters concerning the inhabitants of a particular district or place.

As noted in the works of Adeyemi (2012), Achimugu, Stephen & Agboni (2013), Chukwuemeka et al., (2014), the Nigeria 1976 Guideline for Local Government Reform defines local government as “Government at the local level  established by law to exercise specific powers within defined area and to initiate and direct the provision of services and to determine and implement projects so as to complement the activities of the state and federal government in their areas, and to ensure that local initiative and response to local needs and conditions are maximized.”

The United Nations Office for Public Administration quoted in Ola and Tonwe (2009), Ubani (2010), Achimugu, Stephen & Agboni (2013) defines local government as thus: “A political subdivision of a nation or (in a federal system) state, which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs, including the powers to impose taxes or to exact labor for prescribed purposes.  The governing body of such an entity is elected or otherwise locally selected.

In addition, local government is seen as a system of government whereby the state allows the establishment of local units of government with powers and authority to make local decisions on matters that affect the local communities and to mobilize local resources for implementation or execution of the decisions made (Eboh & Diejomaoh, 2010). The aforementioned definitions by various scholars above clearly show that local government is a multi-dimensional concept.


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