This study was carried out to critically examine the availability and utilization of ICT facilities in teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area of Enugu State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design in which four research questions were posed. The population consisted of seven hundred and sixty nine (769) students and thirty five (35) social studies teachers in Awgu Local Government Area of Enugu State. Simple random sampling procedure was used in selecting nine (9) secondary schools to represent the twenty seven (27) secondary schools in Agwu local government Area of Enugu State. Eighteen (18) teachers and one hundred and eighty two (182) students were randomely selected from the selected schools making it a total of two hundred (200) respondents. A questionnaire of four point rating scale was used as instrument for data collection. Simple percentage was used to analyze the demographic characteristics of the respondents, while weighted mean was used for the data analysis proper with a cut off mean score of 2.50. That formed the standard for accepting or rejecting any item on the questionnaires. The result of the study shows that very few information communication technology facilities are available for the teaching and learning of social studies in the selected junior secondary schools, and this has made both the teachers and students to stick to the old studies. Based on the results, it was recommended among others that, The serving social studies teachers in the government secondary schools in Awgu should be sponsored to attend workshops where they will be taught how to use most ICT facilities and how to use it in teaching as well, also Teachers should try as much as possible to use the available ICT facilities in teaching the students so as to make the lesson interesting and appealing to them and should also give them to use the computer desktops for research and so on.


methods of teaching which makes them achieve little at the end of a lesson, the result also  Shows expressly that (1) lack of sufficient computer desktops,(2) poor electricity supply, (3)inability of teachers to operate the ICT facilities and transfer knowledge with them,(4) lack of adequate facilities maintenance, etc are some of the factors that hinder the availability and utilization of ICT facilities in the teaching of social




TITLE PAGE                                                                                              i

CERTIFICATION                                                                                               ii

APPROVAL                                                                                               iii

DEDICATION                                                                                           iv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                          v

ABSTRACT                                                                                               vi


Introduction                                                                                                          1

Background of study                                                                                  1

Statement of Problem                                                                                 8

Purpose of the Study                                                                                  9

Significance of the Study                                                                                      10

Scope of the Study                                                                                                12

Research Questions                                                                                    12


Review of Related Literature                                                                      13

Concept of Social Studies                                                                           13

Social studies is the study of people                                                           15

Teaching                                                                                                     17

Concept of information and communication technology (ICT)                            19

Types of information and communication technology                               21

Impact of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) On Education 23

Interactive Learning                                                                                    27

Importance of Teaching Social Studies Using ICT Facilities                      28

Benefits of applying ICT in Social Studies Education to students             33

Advantages of Applying ICT In Social Studies Education To The Teachers       36

Theoretical Framework                                                                              38

Activity Theory                                                                                          38

Diffusion Theory                                                                                        40

Review of Related Empirical Studies                                                                    42

Summary of Literature Review                                                                             47


Research Method                                                                                        49

Design of the Study                                                                                    49

Area of the Study                                                                                       49

Population of the Study                                                                              49

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                               50

Instrument(s) for Data collection                                                                50

Validation of the instrument                                                                       51

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                       51

Method of Data Collection                                                                         51

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                      52



Presentation of Result                                                                                53

Demographic characteristics of the response                                                       53

Research Question One                                                                              55

Research Question Two                                                                              56

Research Question Three                                                                                      57

Research Question Four                                                                              59


Discussion, Conclusion, Implications, Recommendations And

Summary of The Study                                                                              61

Discussion of results                                                                                  61

Conclusion                                                                                                 62

Implications of the study                                                                                      63

Recommendation of the study                                                                    64

Suggestion for further studies                                                                     65

Summary                                                                                                    66

References                                                                                                  68

Appendix A                                                                                                         70

Appendix B Questionnaire                                                                         71

Appendix C                                                                                                73




Background of study

Secondary education is the second level of the educational system. Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) 2014 asserted that secondary education is the form of education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage/level. The broad aim of secondary education is to prepare individuals for higher education and also to prepare them for useful living within the society they live. Secondary education consists of senior secondary schools and junior secondary schools. According to Federal Republic of Nigeria FRN (2014) the junior secondary schools will be both prevocational and academic in nature. It will teach all the basic subjects which will enable the students to acquire further knowledge and develop skills. This study is centred on social studies which is taught at the junior secondary level.

The primary purpose of social studies is to develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world (National Council of the Social Studies, 1994). The great architects of American public education, such as Thomas Jefferson, Horace Mann, and John Dewey, believed that every student must be well versed in his nation’s history, the principles and practices which undergird citizenship, and the institutions that define our government. Understandings of commerce and geography were critical to their thinking as well. In essence, Jefferson, Mann, and Dewey viewed the study of social studies as critical to the mission of public schools. Indeed, they would applaud the inclusion of a “responsible and involved citizen” in the Guiding Principles, as well as social studies as one of eight content areas in the Learning Results.

A strong social studies education depends upon a clear understanding of its interrelated disciplines. Without knowledge of the geography and economics of earlier times, history offers only lists of people, events, and dates. Without knowledge of history, the institutions of American government and the dynamics of today’s global economy are difficult to understand. Although social studies curricula vary in their breadth and depth, the Social Studies Standards reflect a focus on government, history, geography, and economics as the pillars of the content, with other disciplines within the social sciences deemed important, but not essential.

The Social Studies Standards refer to “various” peoples, nations, regions of the world, historical eras, and enduring themes. School administrative units should develop a local curriculum that assists students in gaining a coherent, broad perspective on a variety of peoples, nations, regions, historical eras, and enduring themes

The world is moving towards globalization process through information and communication technology (ICT). Information and communication technology (ICT) includes the entire modern electronic device used in various sectors of our economy. It cuts across all aspects of human endeavour such as education, industry, medicine and financial institutions




The literature related to the availability and utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching social studies was reviewed in this chapter. This was done under the following sub-headings:

  1. Conceptual Framework

–        The Concept of social Studies

–        Requisite Skills of Teachers for ICT Utilization

–        The Concept of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

–        Availability and Utilization of ICT Facilities for Teachers

–        Utilization of ICT for teaching social studies

Theoretical Framework

–        Activity theory by Kaptelinin and Nardi (2006)

–        Diffusion theory by Rogers (1983)

  1. C. Review of Empirical Studies
  2. Summary of Literature Review

Conceptual frame work

Concept of Social Studies

Social studies is the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence. Within the school program, social studies provides coordinated, systematic study drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology,



archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion, and sociology, as well as appropriate content from the humanities, mathematics, and natural sciences. The primary purpose of social studies is to help young people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world. (NCSS task force on standards for teaching and learning in the social studies, 1993)

The National Centre for Education Statistics (NCSS), the professional organization of social studies educators, has played an essential role since 1921 (the NCSS definition seems to be a good place to start our discussion of how to teach social studies in an elementary school classroom. The existence of an “official” definition is somewhat misleading because authorities in the field have long debated the dimensions of an appropriate definition of social studies (Barr, Barth, &Shermis, 1977; Barth &Shermis, 1970; Dougan, 1988; Evans, 2004; Griffith, 1991). The National Center for Education Statistics NCSS definition States The Topics Covered in social studies and clarifies the purposes of social studies teaching and learning. Barth (1993) provides a simpler definition of social studies:

Social studies is the interdisciplinary integration of social science and humanities concepts for the purpose of practicing problem solving and decision making for developing citizenship skills on critical social issues.

I think this is a useful definition.



There are no reviews yet.