TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page i
Title page ii
Approval page iii
Table of contents viii
List of figures x
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research questions 4
1.5 Research Hypothesis 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 5
1.7 Scope of the Study 6
1.8 The Profile of the Organization 6
1.9 Definition of terms 7
Chapter 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUR
2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Conceptual Framework 8
2.3 Causes of Poor Quality Products 19
2.4 Ways of Mitigating Quality Defects in the Manufacturing Organization 24
2.5 Theoretical Frameworks 28
2.6 Empirical Review 33
2.7 Summary of related literature 34
Chapter 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 36
3.2 Research design 36
3.3 Area of the Study 37
3.4 Sources of Data 37
3.5 Population of the Study 37
3.6 Determination of Sample Size 39
3.7 Description of the Research Instrument 40
3.8 Validation of the instrument 40
3.9 Reliability of the instrument 40
3.10 Method of Data Analysis 41
Chapter 4: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Introduction 42
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis 42
4.3 Analysis of Research Questions 47
4.4 Test of Hypotheses 51
4.5 Reliability Test 54
4.6 Discussion of the findings 54
Chapter 5: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 55
5.2 Summary of findings 55
5.3 Conclusion 57
5.4 Recommendations 57
5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies 58
1.1 Background of the Study
Quality is one of the competing priorities that many organizations adopt. Khanna (2012) defines quality as the totality of features of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy the customers perceived or stated needs. Quality of a product or service satisfy both actual and perceived needs of the people for which the products are designed and produced for. Banjoko (2009) defines quality as a measure of the degree to which a particular product satisfies the expectations of customers with respect to certain tangible and intangible attributes inherent in the design of the product or service and its performance under normal use.
High levels of quality are essential to achieve Company business objectives. Quality, a source of competitive advantage, should remain a hallmark of Company products and services. High quality is not an added value; it is an essential basic requirement. Quality does not only relate solely to the end products and services a Company provides but also relates to the way the Company employees do their job and the work processes they follow to produce quality products or services. The work processes should be as efficient as possible and continually improving. Company employees constitute the most important resource for improving quality. Each employee in all organizational units is responsible for ensuring that his/her work processes are efficient and continually improving.
Top management should provide the training and an appropriate motivating environment to foster teamwork both within and across organizational units for employees to improve processes. Ultimately, everyone in a Company is responsible for the quality of an organization’s products and services. (Manghani 2011).
In business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it’s also defined as being suitable for its intended purpose (fitness for purpose) while satisfying customer expectations. Quality is a perceptual, conditional, and somewhat subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people. (Nanda, 2016).
The quality of product or service ensures that proper designing process is followed. This designing process needs to be backed by appropriate process design supported by a suitable technology which confirms to requirements of customers. Quality control ensures that defects and errors are prevented and finally removed from the process or product.
In this chapter, the review of some authors on the subject of quality in general, quality assurance and quality control in particular will be discussed. Special attention will be given to quality control.
2.2 Conceptual Framework
In business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it’s also defined as being suitable for its intended purpose (fitness for purpose) while satisfying custoribute and may be understood differently by different people. (Nanda, 2016).
Gitlow (2000) states that, Consumers may focus on the specification quality of a product/service, or how it compares to competitors in the marketplace. Producers might measure the conformance quality, or degree to which the product/service was produced correctly. Support personnel may measure quality in the degree that a product is reliable, maintainable, or sustainable.
There are many aspects of quality in a business context, though primary is the idea the business produces something, whether it be a physical good or a particular service. These goods and/or services and how they are produced involve many types of processes, procedures, equipment, personnel, and investments, which all fall under the quality umbrella. Key aspects of quality and how it’s diffused throughout the business are rooted in the concept of quality management:
Quality planning – Quality planning is implemented as a means of “developing the products, systems, and processes needed to meet or exceed customer expectations.” This includes defining who the customers are, determining their needs, and developing the tools (systems, processes, etc.) needed to meet those needs.