The purpose of this research study was an assessment of radio and Facebook advertisements on the purchasing habits. Anchored on the uses and gratification theory, social relationship theory and source credibility theory, the objectives of the study were structured to determine the extent to which undergraduates youths are exposed to advertisements on Radio and Facebook, to ascertain the media channels preferred by undergraduate youths for advertising information and to determine the media channels which better influences the purchasing decision of undergraduate youths.  The study adopted the survey research method with a sample size of 317 to arrive at its findings. The findings reveal that Facebook advertisements has a higher influence on the purchasing habits of undergraduate youths. The study among others findings concludes that youths are more exposed to advertisements on Facebook more than Radio and that the diffusion and adoption of New media among youths is increasing at a fast pace.  The study recommends that broadcast media especially radio should increase their presence online in order to accommodate the new generation of digitalized youths. It also recommends the presence of gate keepers on Facebook to help filter information especially advertisement information that are not genuine.



Title page                                                                                                                          i

Dedication                                                                                                                         ii                                                                                                                                                    iii

Certification Page                                                                                                                        iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                            v

Table of contents                                                                                                              vi

List of figures                                                                                                                   vii

List of Tables                                                                                                                    viii

Abstract                                                                                                                             ix


1.1 Background of study                                                                                                   1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                                            3

1.3 Purpose \ objective of the study                                                                                 4

1.4 Research Questions                                                                                                    4

1.5 Scope of the study                                                                                                      5

1.6 Significance of the study                                                                                            5

1.7 Operational Definitions of Terms                                                                               5


2.1 Introduction                                                                                                                6

2.2 Review of concepts                                                                                                     6

2.2.1 Audience of the Mass Media                                                                                   6

2.2.2 New media                                                                                                               9

2.2.3 Facebook                                                                                                                  10

2.2.4 Broadcast Media                                                                                                      12

2.2.5 Radio                                                                                                                       12

2.2.6 Advertising in Nigeria                                                                                             14

2.3 Review of Related Literature                                                                                     16

2.4 Theoretical Framework                                                                                               20

2.5 Summary                                                                                                                     22


3.1 Introduction                                                                                                                23

3.2 Research Design                                                                                                         23

3.3 Population of Study                                                                                                    24

3.4 Sample Size                                                                                                                24

3.5 Sampling Technique                                                                                                   24

3.6 Description of Research Instrument                                                                           26

3.7 Validity and Reliability                                                                                              26

3.8 Method of Data Collection                                                                                         27

3.9 Method of Data Analysis                                                                                            27


4.1 Introduction                                                                                                                28

4.2 Data presentation and Analysis                                                                                  28

4.3 Discussion of Findings                                                                                               35


Introduction                                                                                                                      37

Summary of Findings                                                                                                       37

Conclusions                                                                                                                       37

Recommendations                                                                                                            38

References                                                                                                                        48

Appendix                                                                                                                          52





Information is the oil that drives the wheel of socialization and human development. Human beings as integral components of the society depend on it, probably to know the government policies and how it affects them or it could as well revolve around some elementary issues such as sports and entertainment.  Like a popular aphorism will posit: “a person who is uninformed is deformed.”

Advertising is the publicizing of goods and services in order to achieve higher sales. According to Kennedy(2017) says that advertising is salesmanship in print and  Presbrey (2017)could not agree less, to him advertising is a printed ,oral and illustrated art of selling. Similarly Advertising Practitioners’ of Nigeria (1993), advertising is a form of communication through media about products, services and ideas paid for by an identified sponsor. Advertisements could be carried through the traditional media which includes radio, television, billboards etc and the new media which includes Facebook, Instagram ,twitter etc which usually has a higher population of young users, we also have different categories of mass media audience but for the purpose of this research we will be looking at the active audience. According to Okunna (2012) an active audience chooses which medium they expose themselves to, they are also active in deciding which

which sections and programmes of the selected medium to choose. This means that an active audience on radio could decide to tune for the sole purpose of listening to news programs ,while an active facebook user could decide to go online just or to meet new people and not see products being advertised, there are various modes of advertisements both on new and broadcast media ,it could be through   internet pop ups which appear while browsing and it usually advertises products that would be found appealing to that particular user or there could be o5ther cases of advertisements slid in between very interesting programmes as is the case with the broadcast media.

Purchasing habits in consumers have evolved from going to the conventional market and word of mouth. The conventional market having to do with the marketing campaign trying to find out where the target audience are and making their advertisements appear in these places through the use of the broadcast media. An example being in the past we bought things based on the advertisements made by either the radio or television stations. Practical examples include; indomie’s very popular advertisement which was aired on television stations and made catchy and entertaining to the extent indomie became the general name for all noodles in the country.

But in recent years, people buy things not based on what they see on Facebook but they buy also from Facebook. As media critique David Shaw said, the internet has the potential to be the best sales tool and the best advertisement and direct marketing tool ever devised. Our case study being Facebook, focuses on social networking, and allows its users to express themselves, share emotions and as well publish their views on issues on the internet or happening around them .It also gives room for meeting new people, sharing and discussing ideas hence the tag “social media” .It gives advertisers the easy access to their target market thereby assisting in making sales easier. Ever since its inception, it has had a large followership.

Moriarty et al (2014) asserts that by 2007 the smaller but still popular Facebook had created a community of 24 million members, comprising mainly of young adults and adults. Considering the ever changing and competitive field of advertising, marketing advertisers and marketers always looking for new and easier ways to reach their target audience and what better place than a site with a large population of youths who would be exposed to their advertisements on products and services.

So in this study, we are going to discover which of these two mediums radio and Facebook have the higher influence on the purchasing habits of undergraduates (Godfrey Okoye university students).




2.1 Introduction

The review of literature was divided into three sections which include conceptual review, empirical review and theoretical framework of the study. The conceptual review looked at major issues and variables surrounding or related to the study, the empirical review examined the studies carried out by published and unpublished works of communication scholars within this area of study and the theoretical framework looked at the various media theories supporting this study.


    • Audience of the mass media.

According to Compact Oxford English Dictionary an audience are the assembled spectators or listeners at an event. D’Antonio (2018) says that one can commonly think of an audience as a collection of people exposed to some form of media or another. There are different types of audience and looking from historical perspective of Abercrombie and Longhurst (1998) whom identified different tpes of audience. They include;

  1. a) The “simple audience– face-to-face, direct communication, in public, often highly ritualised (theatre and books before the media age, political meetings.
  2. b) The “mass audienceBlumler (1939) says that there are highly mediated, spatially dispersed, often in private; (newspapers readership, TV audience).
  3. c) The “diffused audience– this group are strongly dispersed and fragmented, yet embedded in all aspects of daily life; characterized by routine and casual inattention and yet always tuned, always on(-line).

We also have a different genre of audience which according to Parx (2013) include the audience of newspaper, television, radio, theatre, film and non-broadcast media. Audience of the above media are heterogeneously scattered. They are a mixture of age, sex, profession, education and social class etc and are strangers to one another. Audience is the ultimate source of mass media revenue meaning that if there is no audience to purchase movie tickets and recording, subscribe to newspapers, data bundles for the new media and magazines and attend to radio and TV programmes, no mass medium could stay in business. The messages of TV newspapers and film etc,. are determined according to the nature and behaviour of the target audiences.

Parx (2013) went further to argue that there are different types of mass media audience   which are     the elite audience, the mass audience, the specialized audience, interactive audience

The Elite Audience comprises of highly educated people and their number in the society in relatively small. The Mass Audience represents the dominant majority in a society. They are relatively average people. Mass audience represents almost all segments of the society. The Specialized Audience refers to the special interest groups in the society.

The Interactive Audience consists of those who have control over the communication process in a society. They may be newspapers journalists or radio presenters. Blumer (1939) sees the audience of mass communication as “MASS”, He also listed some characteristics of the mass audience

  • They are often large in number.
  • There are widely dispersed.
  • Its members are usually unknown to each other.
  • They lack self awareness and self identity.
  • They receive messages anonymously.
  • They are heterogeneous in nature.
  • They are incapable of acting together in an organized way to secure an objective but always acted upon.

Audience of the media could be analyzed based on gender, in a research conducted by Budden and Jones (2007) it was discovered that females spend more time on F acebook than males although the difference was found to be statistically insignificant .Similarly, Pew (2018)  found that  Facebook demographics continue to skew heavily toward women with 83% of adult women using the network, compared to 75% of men

Media audience could also be analyzed based on age . in recent times it has been assumed that the new media is mainly populated with the younger generation while the broadcast media has more of the millennial ,according to Pew social report, usage among each age demographic increased from 2014 to 2016.

  • 88% of 18–29 year olds use Facebook.
  • 84% of 30–49 year olds use Facebook.
  • 72% of 50–64 year old use Facebook.
  • 62% of 65+ year old use Facebook.


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