Every local government in Nigeria functions on a framework of bureaucracy. This enables them to function optimally and with shared layers of responsibilities. The essence of this research to suggest a policy framework for improving bureaucratic effectiveness using Egor local government of Edo State as the study. The theories adopted in the study were Max Weber’s Rational Theory, Alvin Gouldner’s  Bureaucratic Theory and Donnellon’s Post-Bureaucratic Theory. The study adopted the survey research design and population of the study consisted of the staff of Egor local government of Edo state which is summed up to two hundred and seventy nine. Sample size of the study was one hundred and sixty four (164) which was derived using Taro Yamane statistical formula. The instrument for data collection was the structured questionnaires. Frequency tables and simple percentages were used to analyze the data. The results of the analysis show that the bureaucratic system in Egor local government has been harsh, adversely affected by bottlenecks, and therefore, needs thorough improvement and political independence. Flexibility and fairness have been suggested as various frameworks for improving bureaucratic effectiveness in Egor local government. It is therefore the recommendation of this study that corrupt officials should be sacked and the bureaucratic system in Egor local government should be restructured and independent of political influence.     




Title page                                                                                                    i

Approval page                                                                                             ii

Certification page                                                                                        iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                                         vi

List of tables                                                                                               vii

Abstract                                                                                                      viii



1.1 Background of the study                                                                        1

1.2 Statement of the problem                                                                       3

1.3 Objectives of the study                                                                          4

1.4 Research questions                                                                                4

1.5 Significance of the study                                                                        5

1.6 Scope of the study                                                                                 6

1.7 Limitations of the study                                                                         6

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms                                                             7



2.0 Introduction                                                                                           8

2.1 Conceptual Framework                                                                          8

2.1.1 The concept of Bureaucracy                                                                8

2.1.2 Threats of Bureaucracy                                                                       14

2.1.3 Need for Bureaucracy                                                                         16

2.1.4 Problems of the Nigerian Bureaucracy                                                 18

2.1.5 Public Administration and Public Bureaucracy: The Nexus                  19

2.1.6 Public Bureaucracy                                                                             22

2.1.7 Bureaucracy Corruption and the Failure of Local Government

Administration   in Nigeria                                                                           24

2.1.8 The Bureaucratized Local Government and Employee Behaviour         26

2.1.9 Bureaucracy, the Nigeria Civil Service and Local Government             27


2.1.10 Concept of  Policy Framework                                                          28

2.2   Empirical Literature                                                                             29

2.3 Theoretical Framework                                                                         34

2.3.1 Max Weber’s Rational Theory                                                             34

2.3.2 Alvin Gouldner’s situational/degree bureaucratic theory                        35

2.3.3 Donnellon’s Post-Bureaucratic Theory                                                    35

2.4 Summary of Reviewed Literature and Gap in knowledge                          37



3.0 Introduction                                                                                           38

3.1 Research design                                                                                     38

3.2 Sources of Data                                                                                     38

3.2.1 Primary Source of Data                                                                       39

3.2.2 Secondary Source of Data                                                                   39

3.3 Area of the Study                                                                                     39

3.4 Population of the Study                                                                          39

3.5 Sample Size Determination                                                                    41

3.6 Sampling Technique                                                                              45

3.7 Instrumentation                                                                                      46

3.8 Reliability of the Instrument                                                                   46

3.9 Validity of the Research Instrument                                                        46

3.10 Method of Data Analysis                                                                      47



4.1 Instrument Distribution and Rate of Return                                             48

4.2 Data presentation                                                                                   50

4.3 Data Analyses                                                                                       55

4.4 Discussion of finding                                                                             60



5.1 Summary of findings                                                                             61
5.2 Conclusion                                                                                            61

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                 62

Bibliography                                                                                               63

Appendix                                                                                                    68




1.1 Background of the Study

Basically, bureaucracy involves a hierarchical positioning of jobs and responsibilities in such a planned and rational manner and guided by such internal rules and regulations as to obviate the intermixture of personal interests with official functions/roles (Ozor, 2004). The rules and regulations also define the duties of members and the procedures for carrying out official duties based on formal structures and authority. In simple terms, bureaucracy is a formal administrative structure with distinct operational features that include division of labour, hierarchy of authority, impersonality, rationality, neutrality and system of rules among others (Ezeani, 2006).

Bureaucracy is often heard and used in connection with the conduct of public affairs and the activities of public officials; who are usually known as civil servants in charge of government agencies. To these set of workers bureaucracies glaringly appear inevitable because of related work activities that is broad, hierarchical structures involved in work management, divided work responsibilities and complex paperwork associated with modern organizations (Adebayo, 2007)

In ideal situations, bureaucracy is known and desired essentially for its reliability, efficiency, speed, dependability and effectiveness in implementing policies. This is what it actually is, to a very reasonable extent, in developed nations. In developing nations, like Nigeria however, the bureaucracy appears to be obviously far from being such as its operations and activities is very much fraught with some challenges arising from the existence of certain negative factors and circumstances.

Bureaucracy, according to Max Weber, the acclaimed father of modern bureaucracy, is a must for modern organization. It regulates work carried out among many people, with different responsibilities and tasks through rules and regulations, in a hierarchical upward relationship which serves as a control.

A policy framework on the other hand is a logical structure that is established to organize policy documentation into groupings and categories that make it easier for employees to find and understand the contents of various policy documents. Policy frameworks can also be used to help in the planning and development of the policies for an organization. In line with this, this study is empirically anchored on suggesting a policy framework for improving bureaucratic effectiveness using Egor local government of Edo state as the case study.





2.0 Introduction

In this chapter which is the review of related literature, the conceptual framework will be carried out because there are some fundamental and technical concepts that demand for clarifications in the way they are being used in the study. The theoretical framework will show the theories and models in line with the study, the empirical literature will contain a review of related studies related to the concept under study and the critique of literature will establish the gap and the limitations of the previous studies.


2.1 Conceptual Framework

2.1.1 The Concept of Bureaucracy

The term bureaucracy is derived from the French word ‘bureau’ which means ‘office’. Literally, bureaucracy means that power is in the hand of officials. Sociologists use the term to designate a certain type of structure, a particular organization of rationally coordinated unequal, and reject the term which equates bureaucracy with “red tape”, inefficiency and the likes. But in Public Administration, Redtapism is brought to fore because of the below expectations level of policy implementation and execution the government offers to the people. Howbeit, most social scientists define bureaucracy in a more neutral way as the formal organization of administrative tasks. In defining bureaucracy as the formal organization of administrative officials, social scientists have tried to avoid prejudgments. A bureaucracy is not necessarily rigid, insensitive or power striving. Nevertheless, the idea of bureaucracy, as it is used in social science theory does carry special connotations. Hence bureaucracy is a kind of formal administrative structure that has distinctive characteristics and problems.

Max Weber has been credited with having made the most thorough analysis of bureaucracy. Accordingly, he is ranked as the greatest exponent of bureaucracy as his work in this area is treated in academic discourse as a classical piece. Consequently, Weber’s conception of bureaucracy becomes crucial to this paper. Max Weber (1946) conceived bureaucracy thus:

The fully developed bureaucratic mechanism compares with other organizations exactly as does the machine with the non-mechanical modes of production. Precision, speed, unambiguity, knowledge of the files, continuity, discretion, unity, strict subordination, reduction of friction and of material and personal costs – these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration. Its specific nature develops the more perfectly the more bureaucracy is `dehumanized’, the more completely it succeeds in eliminating from official business, love, hatred, and all purely personal irrational and emotional elements which escape calculation.


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